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After Man: A Zoology of the Future is the first book of speculative zoology/evolution written by Dougal Dixon. Published in 1981, it exposes though different descriptions and illustrations the inhabitants of the earth 50 million years in the future after the extinction of humanity and much of the Holocene megafauna.

Geography of the future[]

AfterMan Map 50my

Earth Map in 50 million years in the future.

Dixon assumes that Europe and Africa would eventually fuse, closing up the Mediterranean Sea. Asia and North America would collide and close up the Bering Strait. South America would split off from Central America. Australia would collide with southern Asia, uplifting a mountain range. Finally, parts of eastern Africa would split off to form a new island which he called Lemuria. Other volcanic islands have been added, such as the Pacaus Archipelago and Batavia.

Animals of After Man: A Zoology of the Future[]

The animals of the Posthomic Era (known as the Dixonian Era by fans) is separated into different regions and environments. Animals within pages of the book have subspecies listed and illustrated in the book, so many of the animals and their subspecies mentioned and or illustrated will be set in their appropriate biomes represented, either by name or appearance. It also lists the scientific names of the animals and their continental homes if mentioned.

Temperate Woodlands and Grasslands[]

The Rabbucks[]

  • The Common Rabbuck, Ungulagus silvicultrix, the most common species of rabbuck, the Common rabbuck and its genus are descendants of modern rabbits and lagomorphs that have evolved to occupy the niche of the now extinct deer. The rabbucks now act as the principle group of the future.
  • Hopping rabbucks, Macrolagus spp., are the earliest living forms of rabbucks, appearing more rabbit-like with long-necks, and, as their name states, hop.
  • Arctic rabbucks, Ungulagus hirsutus, are a subspecies of rabbucks live in the tundra regions and also in the coniferous forests. They resemble camelids like llamas and vicunas.
  • Mountain rabbucks, Ungulagus scandens, are another subspecies of rabbuck. They are less furry that the arctic rabbucks and are the smallest and least common subspecies of rabbuck.

The Predator Rats[]

  • The Falanx, Amphimorphodus cynomorphus, a mid-sized predator, part of the predator rats lineage. The most common and basic species of the predator rats, it is a descendant of murid rats, hence its lineage name. The Falanx and its lineage act as the principle carnivore group of the future. It is seen in what is now Eurasia and North America.
  • The Rapide, Amphimorphodus longipes, is a slender-bodied species of predator rat that is long-bodied and is from the Eurasian and African grasslands. It can run at a speed of one-hundred kilometers and can be seen as the Posthomic version of the cheetah.
  • The Temperate Ravene, Vulpemys ferox, is a subspecies of ravene, a type of predator rat that is related to the polar ravene, but is less bulky and has a larger head and longer tail. It has a striped appearance mimicking the extinct wild cat. It is found in Eurasia, and measures about 3½ feet (1.1 meters) long, half of which is its tail, and 11 inches (28 centimeters) high at the shoulders. Its head is 6¼ inches (16 centimeters) long.
  • The Janiset, Viverinus brevipes, is a species of predator rat that acts as the future version of a mustelid, most likely a stoat or weasel. It has a smaller appearance but sleek appearance, mimicking the now Extinct Weasels.

Creatures of the Undergrowth[]

  • The Tusked mole, Scalprodens talpiforme, a direct descendants of the common moles. It has an evolved appearance; it has a paddle-like longer tail, and two tusks. With its new appearance, it burrows by pushing itself in a rolling motion with its tusks reaming soil in front of it, with the loose soil pushed back by its feet and compacted by its paddle-like tail. It is also a predator, eating worms, invertebrates, and small surface-living mice.
  • The Testadon, Armatechinos impenetrabilis, an insectivorous mammal that is a descendant of hedgehogs. It has developed a hinge carapace that acts as more defensive armor.
  • The Oakleaf toad, Grima frondiforme, a species of evolved toad that has evolved a fleshy, leaf-shaped growth on its back to defend itself from predators and a worm-like tongue that acts as bait to unsuspecting prey. A fully carnivorous amphibian, it forms a parasitic fluke inside one of the predator rats.

The Tree Dwellers[]

  • The Chirit, Tendesciurus rufus, a slender-bodied, inchworm-moving rodent, descendant of a sciurine squirrel. It has a hard, leathery section of skin around the hindquarters that acts as a grapple to help it hang onto tree branches. It eats nuts from the tree branches. It is from the Northern Continent, the eighth new continent that acts as the northern connecting landmass sections of Northern Asia and North America.
  • Tree Drummers, Proboscisuncus spp., are tree climbing animals that are descendants of white-toothed shrews that have evolved a unique nose that acts as a small proboscis. Climbing trees, their also evolved tusks carve and skin tree bark to find grub worms, in which they use their trunk-like nose to scoop and grab the worms to eat. They live in the Northern Continent.
  • The Tree goose, Pendavis bidactylus, is a species of flying, arboreal wading bird descendant of geese that has taken life to live in arboreal lifestyle. It has evolved longer legs and two toes, where it roosts by hanging upside down. It is found roosting and flying in Eurasia.

Nocturnal Animals[]

  • Purrip bats, Caecopterus spp., are species of bats that have evolved larger ears, more sophisticated echolocation tactics and not needing the usage of eyes. They are found worldwide in the future, except for Australia and Antarctica.
  • Many species of what are called the Great birds of prey are descendants of eagles and owls that hunt at night, making them also known as the Nocturnal birds of prey. Evolving longer legs in some owl-like species, some species are said to have evolved from harriers (not to confused with the Harrier hawk).
  • The Lutie, Microlagus mussops, is another descendant of the rabbit, for whom they went to evolve as the rabbucks. The lutie retains its leoprid-like appearance, such as its long ears, and contends with the other rodents in certain areas, and some where they fully replaced the rodents in competition. It is found in Eurasia, where it is hunted by the Great birds of prey.
  • The Truteal, Terebradens tubauris, is another descendant of white-toothed shrew. It has long-ears, sensory whiskers, and a bird-like mouth. It uses it's "beak," which are evolved incisors that resemble a bird beak, to dig into the earth and eat earthworms.
  • The Shrock, Melesuncus sylvatius, is yet another descendant of white-toothed shrew where it grown to a medium size, and has convergently evolved to resemble the now extinct badger. It lives in the Northern Continent.

The Wetlands[]

  • The Reedstilt, Harundopes virgatus, a Northern Continent-living piscovore that is a descendant of insectivorous mammals, like hedgehogs. It evolved an almost-dinosaur appearance, with long, stilt-like legs, a long neck, and a toothed snout, where it eats fish from the wetlands.
  • The Pfrit, Aquambulus hirsutus, is a tiny descendant of shrew, where it has the ability to not sink in still water, where it uses its tubular mouth to eat insect larvae.
  • The Angler heron, Butorides piscatorius, is a species of heron, most likely a descendant of a butorid heron (likely the Green heron), where its known for its fishing technique, where it makes "ponds" near rivers where it uses bait (a combination of feces and dead fish) to attract fish to the source. Once they come, the Angler heron shoots into the water to catch and eat the fish.
  • The Long-necked dipper, Apterocinclus longinuchus, a descendant of the white-throat dipper, is a European flightless dipper, where its wing as a juvenile are used for flying, but as adults, use the wings to balance and swim for food.

Coniferous Forests[]

The Browsing Animals[]

  • Hornheads, Cormudens spp., are moose-like bovids from the coniferous forests of Eurasia. Equally named for their horned heads, the hornheads are derived from the southern, tropical dwelling gigantelopes, from whom the hornheads come from. Appearing like a cross between a moose, cow and a prehistoric ungulate, the hornhead comes in different species, but all have one common trait: a helmeted face protected by a serrated, faceplate of horn-like armor, hence their names.
    • The Common hornhead, Cornudens vulgaris, is the foremost common species of hornhead. It has a shielded face and two backward protruding horns.
    • The Helmeted hornhead, Cornudens horridus, is a species of hornhead with a heavily shielded face with two upwards, front-facing horns, and is of a brighter, brown-red fur color.
    • The Water hornhead, Cornudens rastrostrius, is a water-adapted hornhead, with a large, paddle-like face that ends with a wide mouth to scoop up and eat aquatic vegetation. It has two antlers that end with two crowns or points.
    • Protocornudens, is the (most likely extinct) ancestor of the hornheads. Resembling more like a true antelope or gazelle, it had, thick, spiraling horns with serrated lines or edges in between that would later evolve the horn-like face plates of its descendants.
    • A related species is the mountain-dwelling Groath.

The Hunters and The Hunted[]

  • Broadbeaks, Pseudofraga spp., are a group of carnivorous starlings that have a wingspan of one meter, or three feet wide. It lives in the Northern Continent coniferous boreal forests.
  • Parops lepidorostrus, a species of starling related to the broadbeak, where it is a common, basic starling of the future.
  • Beavers, Castor spp., are surviving aquatic rodents that have evolved into the future with a rather pinniped-like appearance, with its back legs fused with its tail and has become semi-aquatic. These newly evolved beavers are found in North America, Europe and Asia.
  • The Pamthret, Vulpemustela acer, is a large, carnivorous Descendent of the Fisher that acts as the apex predator of the coniferous forests. Puma-sized, with varying orange-red fur and a small mane, it hunts in pairs and ambushes prey. It is found in the Northern Continent. It is related to the Shurrack.
  • The Spine-tailed squirrel, Humisciurus spinacaudatus, is a species of squirrel, where it has evolved sharp quills on its tail, and has evolved a fur palette akin to that of skunks. It uses its quills to defend itself from predators like the pamthret.

Tree Life[]

  • The Common pine chuck, Paraloxus larga, is a species of cardueline finch, that has a great form of sexual dimorphism. The males and females look like differing species; females are green with a sleek appearance while the male is red, larger and has a wide, cracking beak that is uses to crack and eat pine-cones, which are their primary diet. They live in the Eurasian coniferous forests.
  • The Trevel, Scandemys longicaudata, is a vole-like, chipmunk-like rodent that lives in the trees, and is said to eat shoots, bark and seeds of cones, and other possible subspecies are said to be lightly built and agile to find the branches where the cones are from.
  • The Chiselhead, Tenebra vermiforme, is another inchworm-like rodent, descendant from a sciurine squirrel, where it has evolved massive, enlarged incisors to eat away at wood and bark, where it finds insects to eat and make dens inside tree trunks. It is described as a destructive animal.

Tundra and the Polar Regions[]

The Migrants[]

  • The Pilofile, Phalorus phalorus, is a migratory sandpiper from the tundras of the Northern Hemisphere, that is known for its changing beak structure; in summer, the tundras are filled with flying insects, with the pilofile being one of the birds to catch and eat said insects. In said summer, it develops bristles and a shorter beak to catch these insects. In winter, it migrates south, where it grows a longer, probing beak. It's eggs, green and brown, camouflages itself perfectly in the tundra snow.
  • The Woolly gigantelope, Megalodorcas borealis, a species of gigantelope, is a woolly herbivore where it can said it is akin to the long extinct woolly mammoth. It uses its shoveling-horns to shovel snow out of the way. It lives in herds in the Northern Continent. It measures 9⅚ feet (3 meters) high to the shoulder, and its mass is roughly 8⅘ short tons (8 metric tons).
  • The Bardelot, Smilomys atrox, is a relative of the predator rats, this time occupying the niche of the extinct polar bear. Males resemble said bears, whereas females have saber-teeth that form teeth pouches on its bottom jaw, similar to the long-extinct Thylacosmilus.

The Meaching and Its Enemies[]

  • The Meaching, Nixocricetus lemmomorphus, is a descendant of the lemmings from the Northern Hemisphere tundra, where it builds caste system-like colonies in "fortresses," that almost resemble termites where they expand in yearly size.
  • The Bootie bird, Corvardea niger, is a long-necked corvid that hunts the meaching. Resembling more a heron, it has shaggy feathers that protects its legs.
  • The Gandimot, Bustivapus septentreonalis, is another species of corvid that hunts the meaching. While appearing like a common corvid, its hooked beak and claws resemble those of a skua. It is descended from the Eurasian magpie.
  • The Lesser ptarmigan, Lagopus minutus, is a species of descendant ptarmigan where it finds refuge and homes in abandoned meaching fortresses, but occasionally co-habits with a populated meaching colony.
  • The Polar ravene, Vulpemys albulus, is a fox-sized species of ravene, a type of predator rat. Feeding on meachings, its fur is brown in the summer but white in winter seasons. It measures about 2⅞ feet (88 centimeters) long overall, and 1 foot (30.5 centimeters) high at the shoulders. Its head is about 4¾ inches (12.1 centimeters). To prevent frostbite, it has smaller facial features than its temperate relative; the polar ravene's ears, for instance, are about half of the width of those of the temperate ravene.

The Polar Oceans[]

  • The Flightless auk, Nataralces maritimus, is a species of auk with large amount of subspecies around the Polar Ocean near the Northern Continent. It is known to exist as a chain of subspecies capable of breeding with their neighbors, except at the end of the chain via differences in physiology. They occupy the niche of the penguin.
  • The Pytheron, Thalassomus piscevorus, is an aquatic relative of the predator rats, where it has evolved a pinniped-like appearance. It eats and hunts the flightless auks. It has obviously occupied the niche of the now extinct pinnipeds like sea lions and seals.
  • The Distarterops, Scinderedens solungulus, is another aquatic relative of the predator rats that occupies the niche of walruses. Evolving protruding incisors that act as tusks, alongside a long sickle-like claw on its fore-fins, and evolving a body resembling a beaver, it is the most massive of relative predator rat species.

The Southern Ocean[]

  • The Vortex, Balenornis vivipera, a twelve-meter long (thirty-nine foot long) cetacean-like descendant of penguins. Their beak is described as a "very fine mesh of bone plates." They use their beaks to filter water for plankton. The vortex occupies the niche of whales.
  • The Porpin, Stenavis piscivora, is another species related to the vortex. Having an actual beak-like mouth, they are once again descendants of penguins, and hunt fish. They occupy the niche of porpoises.
  • Skerns are species of larger descendants of terns, whom their appearance has turned into a greener color and feed on fish. They are found in the Southern Ocean near the volcanic islands.

The Mountains[]

  • The Ruffle, Rupesaltor villupes, is a long-legged descendant of the pika, where it uses its long legs to travel greater distances up mountains. It feeds on vegetation off of rocks.
  • The Parashrew, Pennatacaudus volitarius, is a species of mountain-dwelling shrew that has evolved a unique tail; interwoven hairs are formed at the end of the tails to act as a type of parachute when they are blown in the wind to find fresher homes.
  • The Groath, Hebecephalus montanus, a mountain-dwelling goat-like distant relative of the boreal hornheads, is a bovid that lives in groups of four to five females that are guarded by one male. They have extreme sexual dimorphism; males have a shield-like plated hornpiece while females have a pyramid-like shaped hornpiece.
  • The Shurrack, Oromustela altifera, is a large predatory mustelid that occupies the niche of the snow leopard, with longer legs. A distant relative of the pamthret, it hunts in packs after prey like the groath.

Deserts: The Arid Lands[]

The Sand Dwellers[]

  • The Leaping devil, Daemonops rotundus, is a carnivorous, leaping mammal descended from red-toothed shrews, although it has evolved to have an appearance and gait akin to gerbils and hopping rodents. It hails from the North American deserts, and much like its name, is a carnivore (in one page, it is illustrated catching and about to devour a lizard).
  • The Spitting featherfoot, Pennapus saltans, is a species of nocturnal bipedal rodent that, when forced out of its usually nocturnal sleep in the day, it defends and cools itself with a foaming-like mechanic, by spitting foaming, bubbling saliva, the bubbling saliva is not only cooling, but it is also toxic.
  • The Sand flapjack, Platycaudatus structor, is a descendant of modern jerboas, which have evolved a quadrupedal gait as opposed to its previous bipedal gait. With a large flap-like, almost potato chip-like long shaped tail, it uses its tail for body temperature, and are found buried beneath the sands.
  • Desert sharks, Psammonarus spp., are another species of descendant red-toothed shrew, where it they have evolved to appear like the extinct naked mole-rat. It is named the desert shark thanks to its locomotion, literally swimming in the desert, much like a shark. It lives in the deserts of Asia.

Large Desert Animals[]

  • The Desert leaper, Aquator adepsicautus, is a kangaroo-like descendant of gerbils, where it lives in the deserts of Africa and Asia. The Desert leaper is the current largest desert-dwelling mammal of the future, and like the camel, it stores fats in its upper area of its tail to eat saved foods. The desert leaper can lose fifty percent of its body, making an emaciated, flappy skinned mammal, but this is no concern. Once it eats the shoots and shrubs of varying desert plants, its body fattens up, with saved foods stored in its said tail.
  • The Grobbit, Ungulamys cerviforme, is a rabbit-deer-like descendant of springhares. Resembling miniature rabbucks, it has grappling forearm hooves and a long tail. It stands on its hind legs and uses its grappling forearms to grab and eat leaves from desert trees.
  • The Khilla, Carnosuncus pilopodus, is a large descendant of white-toothed shrew that has evolved to resemble the long extinct jackal or coyote. With larger paws, it can dig in the sand for smaller prey items to kill and eat. It is one of the few true desert carnivores. It is found in the deserts of Africa and Asia.
  • Kriskins are common New World cuckoos from the deserts of North America. It is a carnivorous bird, where, despite its striking black-and-white appearance in feather pattern, is found living near white-colored salt flats, to possibly blend in with the land. It lives in the South American deserts.

The North American Deserts[]

  • Rootsuckers, Palatops spp., are armadillo-like descendants of crecitids. Using its large claws to grab at desert vegetation and lies down against the desert ground to supply water, but having its head drawn into its shell to save as much water.
  • The Long-legged quail, Deserta catholica, is a species of evolved New World quails. It is a predator, by using its accurately named long legs to stalk and catch prey in the desert environment. Its breeding cycle is dependent on the weather cycles.
  • The Desert spickle, Fistulostium setosum, is a long-snouted geomyoid. With a bizarre appearance, its spiked back is used as a defense mechanism from predators and enemies, and as partial camouflage usage. It runs to the sides of cactuses, and climbs on them to suck out nectar from cacti flowers.
  • The Fin lizard, Velusaurus bipod, is a species of iguanid-like lizard that has evolved to have no front arms. With it depending on its North American desert environment, it has erectile fins on its neck and tail to raise wind when it feels that it is getting too hot. They also cool down by standing on one leg to maintain body heat.

Tropical Grasslands[]

The Grass-Eaters[]

  • The Flightless guineafowl, Pseudostruthio gularis, is a tall descendant of the helmeted guineafowl. The flightless guineafowl is known for its erectile, air-filling throat pouch, and although having sharp, piercing talons, it usually runs from danger and predators. Living in the African savannas and grasslands, it most likely occupies the niche of the ostriches.
  • The Picktooth, Dolabrodon fossor, is a species of smaller rabbuck. Occupying the niche of gazelles, more resembling the extinct Thomson's gazelle, the picktooth has small, side-facing tusks that it uses to dig up and eat vegetation such as herbs and roots. They also have spur-like claws on the fourth digit of their hooves.
  • The Strank, Ungulagus virgatus, is another species of tropical rabbuck. Stranks are striped in appearance, where they used their stripes to help them camouflage in the grassland environment. They occupy the niche of the zebra.
  • The Watoo, Ungulagus cento, is a large, spotted rabbuck. With spotted, beige-yellow and orange fur, it has a similar camouflaging ability like the Strank, where it uses its pattern to blend in with the grassland vegetation. It eats from high, taller grass. Combined, the watoo, strank and picktooth live in the African grasslands, alongside the Flightless guineafowl.

Giants of the Plains[]

  • Gigantelopes are species of giant, mammoth-like descendants of the then smaller antelopes. The gigantelopes exist in several species and subspecies, where they have evolved to have differing horns and appearances to their environments. They occupy the niche of extinct large mammals, most notably the rhinoceros and the elephant.
    • The Tropical gigantelope, Megalodorcas giganteus, also known as the southern gigantelope, is a common species of gigantelope found in the tropical grasslands and savannas of Africa. It has four large horns, two smaller curved side horns, and two front-facing large, curved horns to shovel up roots from dirt to eat the roots and shoots of the tropical grassland dirt. It is 10⅜ feet (3.2 meters) at the shoulder and weighs around 11 short tons (10 metric tons).
    • The Long-necked gigantelope, Grandidorcas roeselmivi, is a primitive-looking species of gigantelope that, although standing around the same size as the tropical gigantelope, it has a very long neck, where once it outreaches into the open air, it stands at around seven meters. It has two bony pads at the top of its head, where it uses its muscular lips to rip out tasty, leafy morsels from the branches of trees. Both the tropical and long-necked gigantelopes occupy the niche of the elephant.
    • The Shovel-horned gigantelope is a recently extinct species of gigantelope. Having two, flat-shaped shoveling horns, it used its horns to shovel up aquatic plants, since it used to live near rivers and lakes.
    • The Rundihorn, Tetraceras africanus, is a subspecies of gigantelope where it has evolved to occupy the niche of the extinct rhinoceros. Having four forward-pointed horns on is forehead, resembling a long extinct rhino-like species like the Arsinoitherium, it has a broad snout and muzzle, and uses its horns for not only defense and sexual display, with the latter being more important.

The Meat-Eaters[]

  • The Horrane, Phobocebus hamungulus, is a predatory primate, descendant of tree-dwelling monkeys. Resembling a feline, most notably resembling a striped cheetah-like feline, it stalks prey by slowly traversing in the tall grass, lying when near prey. When it strikes, it attacks by ambush. Once it has taken down its prey, it eats the softer tissues and muscles from around the belly and anal areas of its prey, with its chief prey animal being giantelopes.
  • Raboons, Carnopapio spp., are carnivorous primates descended from the then omnivorous baboon. Developing a gait similar to the long extinct theropod dinosaurs and having manes, the raboons act as the top scavengers of the African grasslands, where after a recently killed animal is devoured by its predators, the raboon comes to eat the leftovers of the deceased animal, most notably the tougher parts of the animal. In some ways, both the raboon and horrane occupy the niche of African big cats like the extinct lions and cheetahs respectively. There are varying species of raboon.
    • Carnopapio longipes is a small species of raboon, where it mostly hunts smaller animals.
    • Carnopapio vulgaris is a medium-sized species of raboon that hunts the African rabbucks.
    • Carnopapio grandis is the largest and most massive member of the raboons. Because of its large, bulky size, it is entirely a scavenger.
  • The Ghole, Pallidogale nudicollum, is a descendant of herpestine mongooses, where it feeds on the last bits of meat left on skeletal remains of deceased animals. They form a symbiotic relationship with a species of carnivorous termite; the termites build large mounds with large open, shielded gaps beneath them, in which the gholes come with leftover pieces of meat. In return, of what the scraps are left, the termites consume the small bits and pieces of meat. Gholes are completely hairless at the neck and face areas and have two large teeth on each side of their upper jaw, where they use it to crack bones to eat the marrow inside of them.

Tropical Forests[]

The Tree-Top Canopy[]

  • The Long-armed ziddah, Araneapithecus manucaudata, is a long-armed, old world monkey from the tropical rain forests of Africa. It uses its evolved long arms, legs and tail to swing through the trees to avoid getting eaten by its natural predators. It uses its tail to hang from branches, as it curls itself with its long arms and legs to sleep and rest.
  • The Anchorwhip, Flagellanguis viridis, is a long, slender-bodied colubrid snake. Living an arboreal lifestyle, it hangs from the trees, and from the branches, it waits for an oncoming flying animal. Once their is right time and precision, the anchorwhip fastly bolts and captures the flying animal it caught in its jaws to consume.
  • The Flunkey, Alesimia lapsus, also known as the gliding monkey, is a species of gliding old world monkey descended from the vervet monkey. Now smaller and resembling a cross between a marmoset and a flying squirrel, it has evolved a pair of patagia skin folds, where it uses them to glide from tree to tree. It's tail supports its short, gliding flights.

Living in the Trees[]

  • The Striger, Saevitia feliforme, is one of the most bizarre animals in the African tropical forests. Evolving from the last true felines, the striger, while being feline in appearance, has evolved a gait and body shape akin to that of monkeys. Having yellow fur and black stripes, the striger swings from tree to tree to find prey. It has a prehensile thumb and a long tail that has a padding of rough, hairless skin that it uses to grapple and hang from tree branches.
  • The Clatta, Testudicaudatus tardus, is a slow, leaf-eating prosimian from the African tropical rain forest, where it resembles a sort of sloth or loris. Despite appearances, it is a descendant of a type of prosimian. It has evolved a set of hard, grappling, shell-like armor on the end of its tail, ending with sharp, pointed ends. Because they have shielded ends, when predators like strigers attempt to claw its tail, there no damaging effects thanks to its bony plates.
  • The Khiffah, Armasenex aedificator, is an omnivorous, social, tailless cercopithecine primate from the African tropical forests. With sharp clawed hands, they build large nests called citadels in the treetops, where the khiffahs can sleep, rest and seek refuge. The khiffah is an omnivorous primate, usually eating plants, but meat on ocassions for supplement and protein. Its natural enemy is the striger, with young or inexperienced strigers being killed by khiffahs, usually when female khiffahs taunt it back to the citadel.

The Forest Floor[]

  • The Trovamp, Hirudatherium saltans, is a parasitic descendant of shrew from the African rainforest. A smaller mammal, it clings onto the sides of larger animals, where it uses its canine teeth to pierce and suck blood from its host. Despite resembling a shrew of sorts, it has body behavior similar to simians.
  • The Giant pitta, Gallopitta polygyna, is a species of descendant pitta that is known to live on the forest floor. It creates harems, where one male has various females, in which the females are impregnated by the male, leading the females to build separate nests on the forest floor in the vicinity of the harem. Males are larger than the females, where they rely on the male for food.
  • The Zarander, Procerosus elephanasus, a large, long-nosed suid from the African tropical forests. It depends itself on leaves and tall plants found in the tropical rainforest environment. Taller and striped, they could be seen as a secondary occupier of the niche that elephants once stood, with its home being the rainforest, where it is possibly occupying the niche of the extinct African forest elephant. The zarander, however, has little sense of smell, thanks to the reduced wind and circulation that does not come around often in the African tropical forests. It can reach leaves 13 feet (4 meters) off of the ground; its trunk is about 4 feet (1.2 meters) long, and this creature is about 7¼ feet (2.21 meters) high at the shoulder and 5¾ feet (1.76 meters) high at the hips. Its mass is 1⅜ short tons (1.25 metric tons). Both its upper and lower canine teeth form tusks, about 1½ feet (46 centimeters) long. The zarander is about 13½ feet (4.12 meters) long--21 feet (6.41 meters) including the trunk and the 3½-foot (1.1-meter) tail.
  • The Turmi, Formicederus paladens, is another evolved tropical forest-dwelling suid, where it lives alongside its relative, the zarander. Descending from the giant forest hog, it is striped and has a long tongue. It has clawed hooves and sharp tusks to dig up and eat termites, its principle food of choice, making the turmi an insectivore. Because of its diet, its lower jaw has basically become nonexistent, only leaving a small mouth.

Living with Water[]

  • The Swimming monkey, Natopithecus ranapes, is a species of semi-aquatic tailless monkey, descendant from the Allen's swamp monkey. Living in the African tropical forest wetlands, it has a body shape similar to a frog, and although it is less adapted than its other counterparts, it is still a very efficient swimmer.
  • The Mud-gulper, Phocapotamus lutuphagus, is another descendant of a rodent, specifically the cane rat of Africa. The mud-gulper resembles a cross between a hippopotamus (whose niche it now occupies), and a manatee. The mud-gulper eats aquatic plants, and although it can find itself on land, it is very slow when it goes back into the waters, making the mud-gulper move in a clumsy fashion.
  • The Swimming anteater, Myrmevenarius amphibius, is an evolved species of anteater. Descendant from anteaters, it has evolved fin-like paws and feet, and has evolved a thinner, rounder, smaller body shape to move in the waters. Having a single larger claw on its paws, it uses said paw to eat evolved water ants. It lives in the South American tropical forest wetlands.
  • The Tree duck, Dendrocygna volubaris, is an evolved, arboreal descendant species of whistling duck. Similar to its northern cousin, the tree goose, it has evolved a differing appearance. It now has degenerate webbed feet and has a rounder beak to eat insects, lizards and fruit. It is descendant from the plumed whistling duck.
  • The Toothed kingfisher, Halcyonova aquatica, is a species of descendant tree kingfisher, which is found the watercourses of the Australian tropical forests. Evolving a serrated, tooth-like beak, it is a semi-aquatic bird, with the kingfisher not being a good flyer. When breeding seasons arrives, their beaks change from a grey to a dark lapis color.

Australian Forests[]

  • The Slobber, Reteostium cortepellium, are sloth-like marsupials. Much like its appearance, it is a slow, lethargic tree-dwelling marsupial, and is equally named for its slobbering, mucus-filled drool from its sharp teeth. The slobber eats insects from the flowers on trees. It has several different species that live in types of trees and lives upside down climbing from branch to branch.
  • The Hiri-hiri, Carnophilius ophicaudatus, is a descendant of the Tasmanian devil, which has evolved a possum-like appearance, with a longer tail and an arboreal lifestyle. Predators of the slobber, they disguise their tails like vines, in which any unfortunate animal goes by gets seized by the tail to be killed and eaten.
  • The Chuckaboo, Thylapithecus rufus, is a monkey-like placental marsupial possum from the branches of the Australian tropical forest. Energetic, the chuckaboo has side pouches for its joeys, it has a prehensile tail, and graspable hands.

The Australian Forest Undergrowth[]

  • The Fatsnake, Pingophis viperaforme, is a large, rotund elapid. A convergently evolved elapid that took cues from snakes from the Bitis genus such as the puff adder and gaboon viper, it has a camouflaging scale pattern palette, with green and dark green patterned spots and skin. Because of its large fat area in its lower half, it struggles to move. It does however have a slender area from its head to middle end, where it can strike prey with its venom. Once prey starts to deteriorate, the fatsnake slowly moves to devour its dying prey.
  • The Hawkbower, Dimorphoptilornis iniquitus, is a bowerbird known for its unique and grizzly way to attract its main food of diet. Descendants of the satin bowerbird, it eats flies by making fantastic structures to also attract mates. If any don't come, it takes an animal and skewers through sharp parts of the structure, to attract flies where the hawkbower hides and ambushes the flies.
  • The Termite burrower, Neopardelotus subterrestris, is a subterranean descendant of a pardalote that, true to its name, burrows and eats termites with its sticky tongue. It is one of the local, curious birds alongside the hawkbower.
  • The Giantala, Silfrangerus giganteus, is a giant ground sloth-like descendant of the kangaroo. The largest animal in the Australian tropical forests, it has a tall, great height that it uses to feed upon leaves and shoots on the forest trees. Because of its large size, it crashes its way through the forests, leaving trails behind.
  • The Posset, Thylasus virgatus, also known as the marsupial pig, is a suine-like or tapir-like descendant of bilbies and bandicoots. Pig-like in appearance, it has a striped appearance and four long tusks that portrude from its upper trunk, which it uses alongside its trunk to scrap and dig up for roots in the forest ground.

Islands and Island Continents[]

South American Forests[]

  • The Nightglider, Hastatus volans, is a gliding mustelid descendant. Long and big-eyed, it has evolved a camouflage-patterned appearance, and more alarming is its rows of sharp spines that it has evolved on its front body and belly.
  • The Matriarch tinamou, Gynomorpha parasitica, is a bizarre evolved tinamou, which is known for its sexual dimorphism; females are larger and are game-like birds in appearance, while males are smaller (tiny even) that resemble skinny birds, which live on the back of females for life, acting as parasites to the females.
  • The Gurrath, Oncherpestes fodrhami, is a jaguar-like descendant of mongoose. Its ancestor were invasive mongooses brought by man to the continent, and after millions of years of evolution, alongside the decline and eventual extinction of the jaguar, the mongooses convergently evolved to appear jaguar-like and are now known as gurraths, and are the furthermost predator of the South American forests.
  • The Tapimus, Tapimus maximus, is a common prey animal that lives in the South American forests. Descended from the agoutis and acouchis, it has evolved a pudu-like appearance, with front-forward pointy tusks.

South American Grasslands[]

  • The Strick, Cursomys longipes, is an evolved, bipedal caviid. Resembling a cross between a kangaroo and a rabbuck, it lives in herds and are very shy animals. They graze along tall patches of grass.
  • The Wakka, Anabracchium struthioforme, is a ratite-like descendant of a relative caviid. It is the most specialized plains-dwelling rodent and is amongst the fastest animals of the future. Co-existing with the strick, it has a globulated body, a long neck and snout, and has no forearms. It has eyes placed high enough on its face to see when a predator is approaching.
  • The Flower-faced potoo, Gryseonycta rostriflora, is a diurnal future potoo that has evolved a camouflaging way to eat its food. As its named states, it has the camouflaging tactics of mimicking flowers, except it opens its beak, with its mouth resembling the pistil of a flower, with bristle-like feathers resembling petals, drawing in pollinating insects to its mouth and eating them. It migrates when the rainy season arrives.

The Island of Lemuria[]

  • The Lemurian Swallowtail butterfly is a species of papilionid butterfly native to Lemuria. It is mentioned in the beginning of the book in the "History of Life" chart.
  • The Valuphant, Valudorsum gravum, is a distant relative of the gigantelopes. Resembling a tropical gigantelope, it is a five meter long bovine that has two curved horns, a squat body and a tall back ridge that runs from its back to its neck. The back ridge regulates the valuphant's body temperature. It feeds on herbs and roots using its horns to dig them up.
  • The Long-necked yippah, Altocephalus saddi, is a descendant of antelope. Resembling a cross between a gazelle and gerenuk, it has a single, long horn located on the back of its skull. It feeds on the upper layers of vegetation in the trees.
  • The Snorke, Lepidonasus lemuriensis, is a suine-like bovine from the Lemurian grasslands. Co-existing with the valuphant and long-necked yippah, it feasts on the grass, as opposed to how the valuphant digs up for roots. It has eyes atop its head to have a better view for oncoming predators.
  • The Cleft-back antelope, Castratragus grandiceros, is a primitive evolved antelope. Evolving a ridged-back and having curved, oryx-like horns, it is dark red in fur appearance. They have four-chambered stomachs to pass more nutrients when eating. It has a symbiotic relantionship with the tick bird.
  • The Tick bird, Invigilator commensalis, is a small starling-like oxpecker, which lives in the island of Lemuria. It has a curious symbiotic relantionship with the Cleft-back antelope; it makes nests on the antelope's valley-like area between the ridges of its back, where they eat any parasites on the antelope. They also act as the alarm call if any predator is in the area.

The Islands of Batavia[]

  • The Night stalker, Manambulus perhorridus, is a large, predatory and ferocious carnivorous descendant of leaf-nosed bat that hunts in packs. An animal with a twisting appeaance, it has evolved a peanut-like body and head, with large, sharp teeth and absent eyes, it walks on its forearms and clawless hands and grabs and tears with its backlegs and hand-like feet. They attack any other animals and reptiles.
  • The Flooer, Florifacies mirabila, is a small, strange descendant of leaf-nosed bat. Eating in small groups, it eats insects by its brightly colored ears and nose and bait; the nose and ears resembling a flower that grows in the Batavian islands. Sittingly and patiently, it leaves its mouth open as insects approach it before it eats them.
  • The Surfbat, Remala madipella, is an aquatic future bat. Living in the shores of the Batavian islands, it hunts in shallow waters for fish, by using its evolved wings turned fins, where it hunts into the coral reefs of the Batavian seas. It evolved from a flying, to a walking, terrestrial bat until reaching its aquatic stage of evolution.
  • The Shalloth, Arboverspertilio apteryx, also known as the Flightless shalloth, is a bizarre, sloth-like descendant of vesper bat. Hanging from the trees, it has a sharp-toothed mouth and has a sharp, clawed thumb on each hand to drop and catch prey while clinging from the trees. Its fingers are fused together, and grasp onto tree branches and prey.

The Islands of Pacaus[]

  • The Pacaus Coral Fish is a species of tetradontid pufferfish that lives around the coral seabeds around the Pacauan islands. It is mentioned in the beginning of the book in the "History of Life" chart.
  • Pacauan whistlers, Insulornis spp., are a genus of birds descendant of the golden whistlers that lived in ancestral Australia. Arriving on the island of Pacaus, many of them have evolved in diversity and appearance. Species of Pacauan whistlers are found in these islands.
    • Insulornis piciforma, is a species of chisel-beaked Pacauan whistler in which it uses its beak to dig into the bark of trees and eat insects living within the trees.
    • Insulornis macrorhyncha, is a parrot-like species of Pacauan whistler. It has a large, orange beak, in which it uses to crack open shells to eat.
    • The Hawk whistler, Insulornis aviphaga, is a predatory species of Pacauan whistler that actively hunts other Pacauan whistlers on Pacaus and other animals.
  • The Pacauan bird snake, Avanguis pacausus, is a species of elapid snake found in the islands and archipleagos of Pacaus, where it has distinct markings on its head and face, and is orange in appearance. It likely evolved from an elapid snake species from ancestral Oceania and or in Australia.
  • The Terratail, Ophiocaudatus insulatus, is a squirrel-like murid that is one of the only mammals known to be found in Pacaus. It has evolved a tail which resembles the Pacauan bird snake, which it uses to as an advantage, as predators like hawk whistlers prey on the terratail, it uses its tail to scare off predators from attempting to kill and eat it.


Temperate Woodlands & Grasslands[]

Coniferous Forests[]

Tundras and the Polar Regions[]

Deserts: The Arid Lands[]

Tropical Grasslands[]

Tropical Forests[]

Islands and Island Continents[]


  • As such, during the making of the book, known as the pitch document, alongside a book plan of the book, many animals were either redesigned or scrapped, with the book layout being different from its previous intent.
    • For example, rabbucks were known as "rabbit ungulates," the Desert shark being called "mammalian skinks," and the Woolly gigantelope was known as "woolly mammoth antelope."
    • Many animals in the finished product were different compared to their pitch document-like designs, and although the pitch document showed various illustrations of animals in small detail to fit in the green portfolio-like book plan that acted as a layout of the book alongside the pitch document, it still shows many changes that didn't make it into the final product.
      • Falanx were modeled off of the illustration of the Borzoi from Maud Earl's 1911 painting that was featured in The Book of the Dog. In the book plan, the predator rats retain their appearance.
      • The Rabbucks remain the same appearance in the book plan, alongside one of its species, the Hopping rabbuck, though several, possibly scrapped species are found in the book plan.
      • Five scrapped animals are found in the prototype Temperate Woodlands and Grasslands sections, possibly from what would later be the Creatures of the Undergrowth sub-section. This includes a bulbous rodent of sorts, a type of snake, a type of scorpion, a species of what appears to be a sort of hedgehog-like insectivore (possibly being what would later be the Testadon) and a colony of ant-like animals following the hedgehog-like insectivore.
      • The Chirit and possibly the Tree Drummer appear the same, while different scrapped animals appear in the prototype section of the Tree Dwellers, including a sort of bird (which could have later be ammalgamated into the Tree goose), a rodent that heavily resembles (and possibly ended up as) the Pacauan Terratail, and another sort of tree-dwelling mammal.
      • One section of the Temperate Woodlands and Grasslands is too undeterminable to describe, but does describe species of possibly nocturnal and underground-dwelling animals.
      • The prototype Coniferous Forests section has many changes. For example, what appeared to be a forest-like Woolly gigantelope would have lived in the coniferous forests as opposed to the Tundra and Polar Regions, alongside a type of ungulate, and what appears to be a sort of tortoise (or possibly a tortoise-like evolved descendant of an armadillo).
      • The Pamthret and the Spine-tailed squirrel remain the same, though the Pamthret looked more lion-like and the Spine-tailed squirrel had a longer tail.
      • The Tree Life sub-section prototype featured several animals in the final product such as the Chiselhead and possibly the Trevel, alongside three unused animals: a type of predatory bird, and two rodent-like animals.
      • The prototype of the Tundra and the Polar Regions has several changes. For example, in the book plan, it possibly shows an aerial map of the Polar Ocean, where several animals are detailed, such as what would be the Woolly gigantelope and the Arctic rabbuck, alongside three birds that were unused, including a heron-like bird, a plover-like bird and a small, tiny bird or even a rodent.
      • The Woolly gigantelope is present, alongside a sort of rodent, possibly what ended up as or is the Meaching, where an illustration of a migration is depicted of this rodent. A sort of bird is shown alongside what is possibly its prey animal, a sort of dragonfly-like insect or even a damselfly of sorts.
      • Several aquatic animals of the tundra are shown, including what appears to be a long-necked otter (that is illustrated in the pitch document) alongside a flying bird and insect, in which the long-necked otter snatches one of them or a type of fish.
      • The prototype of Deserts: The Arid Lands has several changes. What appears to be the Desert shark and Leaping devil appear but are slightly different, alongside several undeterminable animals. The Desert leaper remains the same, alongside what are possible early incarnations of the Grobbit and Khilla, alongside several unused animals, including a type of bird, a parasitic-like predator, a large ungulate of sorts and a group of rodents.
      • Several insects are present including “a communal beetle that forms a sort of testudo when things get really tough,” a wasp-like insect or beetle and a sort of butterfly-like insect.
      • The prototype of the Tropical Grasslands includes the most animals from the finished product, including the raboons, gholes, the tropical rabbucks and the gigantelopes, which the gigantelopes appear as a hybrid of the Tropical and Long-necked gigantelopes into one. Several unused animals from this section included a tropical snake being attacked by two predatory birds (possibly being the prototype of the Flightless guineafowl), a group of moa-like birds running, and a lizard and long-beaked colorful bird on a termite bound above three resting gholes.
      • On one section discussing the tropical rabbucks, the Strick of the South American grasslands is shown, possibly indicating that the Strick was originally going to live in the African grasslands.
      • The Ghole is greatly different in the prototype. While not hairless at the face and neck as described and shown in the final product, it was originally going to look like a giant basic mongoose.
      • The prototype of the Tropical Forests shown a lot of finishing products and unused concepts. For the prototype of the Tree-Top Canopy, several species of birds and arboreal mammals are shown, not in the final product. Prototypes of what would become the Striger, Khiffah, Flunkey and Long-armed ziddah are shown. The Striger was more arboreal-like and was brown-red, while the Flunkey was of a darker brown color, whereas the Long-armed ziddah had a normal body with white tufted hair as opposed to the fully black and smaller bodied ziddah that would appear in the finished product.
      • The Forest Floor section of the Tropical Forests saw many different species, including prototypes of what would possibly end up being the Zarander and Turmi, alongside a hopping rodent, a shelled long-necked animal and a quadrupedal predator or rodent of sorts.
      • The Tropical Swamps would have been its own section but much like in the final product, it is very brief. The Swimming Monkey, Mud-gulper and Swimming anteater have their own prototype. The Swimming monkeys had paddle-like webbed feet, the Mud-gulper resembled more like an actual hippopotamus and the Swimming anteater had the same appearance. The appearance of the aquatic ants fed upon the Swimming anteater, though only described in the book, are illustrated floating upon a lurking swimming anteater.
      • The unused biome of the Mountains would possibly be later implemented into the Tundra and Polar Regions as a sub-section, including a lot of unused animals, most notably several birds and other mammals. The Mountain rabbuck is described within this brief section, alongside a rodent and an early incarnation of possibly the Shurrack.
      • The Oceans are an unused biome within the book plan. Early incarnations of the Vortex are shown, with a slightly smaller beak. Illustrations of an unused long-necked otter and sirenian-like beaver are shown. Various species of fish are shown, alongside what could be an early incarnation of the Flightless auk are shown, alongside deep-sea fish like a widemouth snaggletoothed anglerfish, a gulper eel and a big-eyed squid.
      • The Islands section feature early incarnations of South America, Batavia (shown as being near Africa) and Australia. The Night Stalker is shown from the book plan, alongside several new but unused animals, include several raboon-like monkeys near South America and a cavy or paca-like rodent, and early incarnations of the Giantala in the Australia section alongside several smaller animals and a Platypus-like animal.
      • The end of the book explains what would happen to life, even after the death of the Solar System.
    • A rather interesting scrapped creature is described as a "descendant of the yeti." This scrapped concept was most likely influenced by a later canon After Man animal known as the Macaqueti, a gorilla-like descendant of the Japanese macaque.
    • The book layout was different from the finished product. Instead, between pages, when introducing a biome, there where diorama-like illustration to show the biomes with its various inhabitants. Unused biomes included the "Tropical Swamps," "The Mountains," and a section based on the oceans.

See Also[]

External links[]